Bumblefoot in chickens

The other day one of my hens, a Russian Orloff (a very good cold hardy breed by the way) was limping a little bit and holding her foot up a lot. One of her toes (at the base of it) was swollen. She had a small black scab on the bottom of it. She must have cut it or gotten a splinter. This is a form of Bumblefoot.

Reasons for getting Bumblefoot are:
-a cut or other wound becoming infected
-repeatedly landing on hard ground from a perch that is high up
-rough, sharp,or plastic perches
-rough, wired, or hard ground
-wet, unclean perches or ground
-heavy birds are more susceptible

To prevent this you should:
-keep the perches in the coop low (I would say no more than a couple feet high if you're in a walk in coop)
-use a variety of natural branches, that are clean and smooth (so they don't get splinters)
-keep the ground of the coop well padded (with soft shavings, straw, hay, etc)
-provide good nutritional laying pellets
-regularly check on your chickens for any signs of odd behavior, illness, or wounds

To treat Bumblefoot:
I just did this by myself, so I wasn't able to take any pictures, which is what helps me understand things best. So here is the website that helped me:
And go to this website to see how to wrap the chicken's foot after the surgery:

After the surgery, I put her in a cage with cushy towels on the bottom for the night. The next day she seemed to be doing alright. Her wound was clean and I re-bandaged and wrapped it and let her out with the others. She was pecking at the bandage a little, so I am checking her frequently to make sure the wrap isn't coming off. If it is, then re-wrap it and maybe keep her in the cage a little longer. I recommend re-wrapping /bandaging the foot daily until the wound has created a nice scab to prevent bacteria going in the wound, then she should be alright without it. Always keep a close eye and check daily any sick chicken.

Also, Bumblefoot can happen to any animal with a padded foot (versus a hoof), so make sure the animals always have a well bedded place to rest if they are living on hard or rough ground/perch or a wired cage.



Unfortunately, one of the biggest problems with having free roaming chickens are hawks. They are sneaky, patient, and fast. I've let my chickens free roam my backyard for almost 5 years before one day, a new hawk comes to the neighborhood, and quickly, within a week, kills 4 out of my six hens. They swoop down, pin the chicken down, and tear it apart. And the only way for this to not happen is prevention, not treatment (like shooting it) because hawks are protected-at least in a neighborhood. I tried putting up those shiny garden streamers in the trees to confuse it, didn't work. Keep them close to people and the house, didn't work. Only let them out when someone is watching them, didn't work. (A dog protecting the flock probably would work but me and my dog weren't there). Now I have two hens left that were too scared to even come out of the coop, so I took them to the farm I am staying at right now. Where they can be in a new place with more chickens, and hopefully forget about their horrible experience.
So if you want your chickens to be free roaming, then it would be good to make sure they have lots of low cover places to hide in quickly. Or put up a lot of netting over where they like to go. And probably only let them out when you are around would be good, too. I've heard guinea fowl are great for scaring off any kind of intruder because they become very noisy and freak out. Whereas chickens usually become quiet when in danger, not guineas, and probably turkeys or geese might make good guard dogs....Otherwise, if you can't get rid of your predator problem, then it would be safest to keep them in a confined area. Or you can let your chickens be free roaming and happiest, but with a very likely chance of getting killed. But even with my hawk experiences, I would still let my chickens free roam. Unless of course the predator refuses to leave, then I'd have to confine them, or take them somewhere else, like I did.

Chickens--aka pig snacks

On the farm I am at right now, we've got a chicken coop next to one of the pig pens (not a good idea in the first place, but space is limited). And one day, Cinnamon the hen decided to go into the pig pen. Luckily I found her in time. She was stuck in a corner just laying there while three young pigs were munching on her side. First of all, animals are so tough. She had a hole around the size of my thumb going in from just above her vent (so lucky) and into her back (so lucky again). The pigs didn't get any organs or any other critical parts of her body. So that was really helpful in her recovery.
Right away I rinse the wound with room temp water and squirt a bunch of iodine on it. Iodine is great for preventing or curing infection. (I've used it on calves and myself too.) It doesn't hurt. Then I pet her in a big box, in the bathroom, which was the warmest place in the house at the time. Just like treating an ill chicken, make sure she is in a clean and dry area, is very warm, in a lighted room, has lots of water, and lots of yummy treats so she will keep her appetite. One of the problems I had was flies, which will lay their eggs in the wound because it's wet and dark, and smells good to them. You can read another person's experience with this at http://shilala.homestead.com/woundcare.html . But we were able to keep them down with the fly swatter and cleaning out her box everyday. Light and keeping the wound dry is crucial. Bacteria (or flies) don't like dryness or light. Every day I would check the wound and every couple days I would squirt it with iodine. I knew the wound was healing because it didn't smell (yes I smelled a chicken's butt, don't laugh :) and it was dry and dark and scabby. I didn't see any white/yellow/green goo, or fresh cuts (like if she was pecking at it, which would mean it's irritating her). And within a few weeks she even started laying again! But I kept her inside until the wound was really hard and was covered by her feathers so the other chickens wouldn't peck at it.
Cinnamon is back to normal now. Except half of her tail feathers grew back straight up, so her tail looks like really bad bed head.
Chickens are fragile, but tough. And if properly taken care of, can heal quickly and become (almost) back to normal. Always ask other experienced poultry people's advice if doing anything risky with your chicken. Each wound is different, and might need a different type of treatment than this.


Swollen Hen's Body

One of my hens, Edith, became more and more swollen over about a week. She looked healthy, but she was barely breathing, her body was swelling up, and could barely move around. I thought it was another egg bound situation, so I tried using the method for helping her pass an egg (check out my "egg bound" post)--at least three different times. But there was no egg and she kept getting worse. Unfortunately, I was leaving (out of the country) within a few days, and didn't have the time to try to fix her. So I had to put her down. Then I proceeded to do an autopsy on her, and as soon as I inserted the knife, a whole bunch of fluid flooded out and her body totally deflated. The liquid was yellow-ish and watery. Her organs looked perfectly healthy. So her lungs and every other organ were still working, but were slowly being suffocated by fluid build up. So I looked around online and in my books to find out what was wrong with her. I don't know specifically what it was, but I have two similar diagnostics. It was either Ascites or a type of egg yolk (EYP) Peritonitis.
Ascites-Fluid pooling in the abdomen
Sterile Peritonitis-Fluid in her abdomen that is not filled with bacteria or caused by internal infection
Septic Peritonitis-Fluid with bacteria

I found a very detailed forum entry (scroll down to the entry by "crazychick"): http://www.thepoultrysite.com/forums/showthread.php?t=4340 
describing the diseases and how to fix it. I recommend reading the whole thing very thoroughly. 

The idea for fixing this is to drain the fluid out of the hen using a catheter. You will need to buy supplies, and set up a sterile area since you will be performing surgery.
Although I don't believe it is inhumane or unfair if you decide to put your hen down and not do this procedure (since it is very time consuming, and risky) I will definitely try it next time this happens. I think that if you're new to chickens, then it might be a good idea to get another chicken owner/expert's advice or help before trying anything.


Pellets or Crumble?

I use organic layer pellets for my hens. I prefer pellets over crumble for many reasons:

-Less messy. Crumble spills all over the ground because the chickens will dig the feed with their beaks while eating. They will do this with the pellets too, but it is easier to eat it off the ground than the crumble.
-Easier to eat. Sometimes crumble can be powdery. Before a chicken pecks something, they look at it with their left eye first then their right eye to be able to pinpoint the thing they will peck. If the crumble is powdery, then it is harder to eat because the powder is so fine there isn't really anything to see. Pellets are much easier to see. (A solution to the powder/crumble is to put it in a bowl and mix in water to make it chunky).
-Not wasteful. Crumble will get all over the ground, and sometimes won't get eaten, so much of it will get wasted. You can put the wasted crumble in your compost if you have one.
-Better nutrition. (At least in Santa Barbara) chicken crumble usually doesn't have enough calcium (and other nutrients to encourage egg production) for laying hens because it is meant for chicks. So for calcium deficiency, you can either buy crushed oyster shells or grind their egg shells and mix it in with the feed (I do this for the pellets anyway).
-Lasts longer. In my experience, pellets last longer than crumble. When in storage, the crumble clumps together and gets moldy more quickly, especially if it's in a humid atmosphere. 

I store the pellets in a metal trash can (with a lid) in our garden shed. I think it is good to store the feed in a cool or room temperature place to avoid it spoiling too quickly. I buy organic because we are eating the eggs and don't want chemicals in them, and of course it is much better for our environment and hens. But it is more expensive. I also get safflower seeds (and spread a cup around in the run) for extra protein-and they love it.


Hen pecking/Cannibalism

"Birds will show cannibalistic behavior when they are crowded or feed-restricted. Flock behavior and inter-bird dynamics often include aggression of birds toward each other, which can ultimately result in injury. Cannibalism is a separate problem that may occur long after dominance relationships have been established. Cannibalism differs from dominance as it actually causes physical harm. Cannibalism may begin with feather pecking and is usually directed toward the body, toes, tail and the vent area. Prevention of cannibalism is much easier than treatment."


Overcrowding- You need to increase amount of space for each chicken, so they are able to escape being pecked
Not enough water/feed- Be sure all chickens have access at all times, they drink a lot of water so provide extra water bowls with fresh water daily 
Bright lights- If you have bright lights in the coop or run, keep the light intensity low to decrease extra activity/cannibalism 
Too hot- Keep the coop/run ventilated and cool, hot temperatures aggrivate them 
Nutrition deficiency- Deficiencies of nutrients like methionine, protein, and salt will increase a craving for feathers and blood 
External parasites- Regularly treat your chickens if they have lice/mites/etc. The parasites will encourage them to peck/injure skin 
Sick/small/weak chickens- Remove all sick, weak or small chickens, the dominant chickens will attack them
Hard ground- Your chickens need to scratch, dig, take dust bathes, etc. A hard surface will prevent them from doing this and keep them less occupied. I put mulch, mowed grass (fertilizer free), leaves, and loose dirt. I also spread seeds around for them to find. Do not use gravel or hay (hay will attract mites/lice)

I have not personally experienced cannibalism with my chickens, but I know a few others who have chickens that have hen pecked each other (to the death) because of too small of a space. Chickens are made to roam and forage in order to find food. Even if they are getting enough food for the day, they will still want to forage. If they can't they will get bored and beat up on each other (which is the same with all animals). The main thing to remember is to keep them in as natural a habitat as possible, which will give them space to roam, escape pecking, and be occupied.

This link shows pecked chickens, and a way to treat it:
This link shows how to make chicken "capes" to cover their injury:



Edith molting
If you notice your chickens are losing lots of feathers, most likely they are molting. If they are healthy, and if it's around winter time. The chicken's first year is always a little awkward, so they may not molt, or just a bit, or like my hen Edith, a full body molt every year. During this time, they will either decrease laying eggs, or stop until they have completely recovered. You will also know when they are not laying because their comb will be pink and dry, instead of thick and red when they are laying.
(They are NOT molting if you see damaged feathers/scabs/skin/blood on their back or head; then they are being hen pecked).
after the molt
Make sure there aren't any drafts in the coop, since their loss of feathers won't keep them as warm. One of my hens would sleep in the nesting box sometimes. If your hen/s seem cold and shaky, then you may need to put a heater in the coop or if its just one or two, you can put them inside the house, in a draft free room for the night so they don't get sick.
Molting is a very interesting process to watch. My girls actually seem embarrassed, and don't want me to come anywhere near them! They also don't feel great either, so I just leave them be. Then around a month later, they will be as good as new (literally) with pretty soft feathers.


Hatching Chicks-The Natural Way

After exactly 21 days, 2 out of the 3 fertilized eggs hatched that I had put under my broody Cochin hen. It takes at least 10 hours to hatch from their "pipping" stage (the first hole they've pecked out of the shell). I did not know it took this long, so I got worried and actually hatched one of the chicks. Many people will agree that this is not a good idea to hatch the egg for the chicks, so don't help the chick hatch unless it has taken over a day for it to peck out.
I had already blocked off the run, so the other chickens couldn't bother the chicks. (I didn't want the hen and chicks to be free roaming because of too many predators in our yard). And prepared a large nesting box with plenty of shavings, a chick size water bowl, and a food bowl of chick crumble (this is also good for the hen to eat because of the extra protein to help her get her strength and weight back), and because it was raining I made a water proof shelter over the nesting box. Its up to you if you want to use a heating light or not (I did not since my hen provided enough warmth).
During the first week, I had actually put them in my shower (since the weather was so bad), but I think it had helped keep them warm and comfortable anyway. I went a bit overboard.

You could probably let the chicks out with your other chickens around 3 weeks, but I waited till they were 8 weeks. So they were all feathered out (more protection with the hen pecking); and the mama hen had had enough of them anyway!

Make sure the brood area is kept clean and dry. The mama hen will do all the work, but I think it is a good idea to check on them every day to make sure the chicks are staying healthy. And if you want to tame them then you will want to handle them frequently--which you will need to anyway to check for signs of illness. My hen didn't seem bothered too much by people picking up the chicks.
A hen can sit on 10-12 eggs (especially a giant Cochin like mine :). And I know that hens will gladly raise not just chicks, but poultry breeds too.

If you want to try hatching chicks, make sure your hen is VERY broody-meaning never leaving the nesting box, and not switching between different boxes. If you don't have a rooster, you can find fertilized eggs pretty much anywhere (try Craigslist). And the eggs are fine if they are kept at room temp (do not chill) for a few days. The embryo is suspended in time and won't start growing until the hen sits on them to heat them up.


Broody Hen!

 I have two Blue Cochin hens who get broody very often. Being "broody" is when a hen wants to be a mom, so she sits on her eggs until they hatch. Chicken breeds that are commonly known to be very broody are Cochins, Silkies, Frizzles, and Brahmas. My Cochins get broody every couple months. So if you really depend on your chickens producing eggs, don't get these breeds. But if you want to hatch chicks the natural way (versus using an incubator) then I know from personal experience that Cochins are great brood hens. Since my hen was VERY broody, I decided that I would let her hatch some eggs, just for fun. I got 3 fresh fertile eggs from a friend and sneaked them under my broody hen and took out the sterile eggs she was already sitting on. Twenty-one days later, two out of the three chicks hatched!  (Top left, is a picture of a very upset broody girl who can't go back in her nesting box!)

If you would like to try hatching chicks, here is what I did to prepare:
-I kept the hen separate from the other chickens so she wouldn't be disturbed
-Made sure there were plenty of shavings in the box to help keep the eggs warm
-Gave the broody hen extra protein and fat (like chicken scratch, chick crumble, seeds, etc) so she wouldn't starve, since she would only come out of the nesting box once per day for about 20 minutes to eat and relieve herself
-Checked on her regularly
- I recommend thoroughly reading this website before, it is very detailed:  

If you don't want your hen to be broody, then here are some ways to treat it:

- Collect all the eggs in the coop in the afternoon, take the broody hen out of the nesting box, and block the nesting boxes so she won't go back in (then remove the blockade when it's dark, so the chickens can the boxes use in the morning)
-A broody hen's body temperature will increase, so you can fill a bucket of cool water and hold the chicken in it for about about 30 seconds (only her undersides need to be wet)
-You can also keep her in a separate cage, but I think just blocking the nesting boxes is less stressful and easier
(Bottom left, is a picture of Adelaide, a Cochin, cooling off in a bucket of water)

Adding New Chickens to the Flock

Before adding new chickens to your flock, make sure they are healthy. And if you have adult hens make sure the new chickens are at least 4 months old before introducing them so they are all about the same size. To be safe, I made the introduction process spread out for a couple weeks. Before I got the new chickens, I made a temporary cage next to (or inside) the coop so my chickens and the new chickens can see each other during the day but not have physical contact. Make sure they also have food and water, and if laying, a nesting box. And even a small perch for them to roost on if you want, and shelter from weather and predators. 
After picking up the new chickens, put them in their temporary cage and give them plenty of water, food, and treats to be occupied during the day. Keep a close eye on them because the new chickens, since being separated from their flock, may be re-establishing their pecking order and may fight a bit. I've found that it's easiest introducing chickens that are younger than my flock because they are more likely to be submissive and will get the pecking order established sooner with less fights. Especially introducing a rooster that is younger and smaller than the hens is best so then he won't beat up the hens as much since they will most likely be dominant over him for a little while. I've also found that introducing hens to a flock with an existing rooster is harder because he views them as intruders, whereas hens seem to accept new comers faster.
After a couple weeks of getting used to each  other, I let the new chickens out of their cage during the afternoon. I've found that lots of space is key for introducing the new chickens. This way everyone can be more distracted and less likely to fight so much. I kept a close eye on them all day. If one of the chickens is wounded or being really naughty, then you may have to separate her/him for a little while to cool off or heal.
By the end of the day, the new chickens should be going into the coop at night with the others. If not, then just put them in until they get it. I have a coop with a run attached to it that the chickens can freely go in and out of. Some of my new chickens would just roost outside in the run at night instead of the coop. If it's warm I wouldn't worry about it. But after a few days they were still not going inside the coop, so I would just put them inside the coop, on a lower perch away from my flock, and soon they got the idea.
Another good thing to remember is that every 2-3 hens added, I added another nesting box. And every 8-10 chickens added, I would add another food and water feeder so that everyone will get a chance to eat at the same time. Also the more chickens added, the more roaming space will be required to prevent hen pecking.

Egg Eating Problem

Many chickens develop this bad habit. It is when they will lay their egg and then realize they can break the egg shells (usually by accident the first time) and eat really yummy egg yolk inside! This will happen to chickens who are bored or who instinctively need the protein (sometimes its hard to tell which is the cause).
To treat this make sure:
-There are enough nesting boxes for the hens (I have 3 boxes for my 8 hens)
-The boxes are big enough (Mine are 14x14x14 inches)
-There are no bright lights in the coop
-That that they are given lots of extra protein supplements like worms, seeds, dairy, etc
-Collect the eggs right after they have laid
-To give the chickens enough treats to occupy them during the day (I've used chicken scratch, chick crumble and seeds to spread around the run so they can scratch around)
-If an egg is cracked or eaten, remove the rest of the egg from the box and throw away immediately
-If the chickens are given their egg shells for extra calcium, grind the shells thoroughly
-There is enough shavings in the box, so the eggs are being padded when laid
-You can also replace the eggs with an imitation wood egg, so when they peck it, it won't break, which will make them give up (I don't believe golf balls work. A chicken's sight is very fine-better than ours-so they are smart enough to tell the difference between a real egg and golf ball).

Dogs and Chickens

If you want chickens, then you will need to make sure they are safe from your dogs (and other neighborhood dogs) if they are not chicken friendly. I got my chickens before I got my puppy, so it was really easy to train her not to chase the chickens, since they weren't a new animal I was bringing home. Keeping her on a leash, I let her look come into the chicken area. I used the "leave it" command (with a quick tug on the leash) strenuously and often, even if she just started to come up to sniff or follow them, etc. This just teaches her from the beginning that she needs to respect the chickens' space, and they are not toys.
But I would not introduce the dog to the chickens for a week, so the dog (and chickens) can calm down and get comfortable with each other. I think it is a very good idea to keep the chickens in a fenced off area that is safe from predators.
You can also watch this video, http://www.self-sufficient-life.com/Keeping_Chickens/DogVideo.htm , that seems to have worked for other people.

Clipping Wings

You only need to clip the chickens' wings if they are escaping their area by flying over it. If you have a run with a cover on top, then you don't need to clip their wings, because they are escaping by crawling under the fence...
Clipping wings are not hard at all, only one person needs to do it. Before you catch the escaping chicken, get scissors, a towel and something to sit on.

1. Catch the chicken, put the towel over your lap (if the chicken is not tame, it may poop on you out of nervousness)
2. Hold it on your lap with your arm holding the wing to stretch it out (you will only need to clip the primary feathers)
       3. Using good scissors, you can clip the feathers quickly and easily. Clip them up to the wings coverts.

Always be calm and gentle when handling a chicken. If your chicken it not tame, then it might take a while for you to just hold it and wait for it to hold still, or you can get someone else to hold it while you take the wing and clip the feathers.


Egg Bound

A book that has guided me in figuring out chicken diseases is called The Chicken Health Handbook, by Gail Damerow.

My New Jersey Giant, Opal, died from being Egg Bound. This is when an eggs gets stuck or cracks in the oviduct, which stops other eggs from laying, and builds up, creating a bulge in the bottom of the hen under the vent. I dissected Opal and found over thirty rotten soft full size eggs all throughout her body. And in such an extreme case a hers, the best thing to do is put her out of her misery. But Opal died before I could luckily. But it is not always fatal.

Here is a way to treat it if you catch it early enough: 
"Moist heat is considered the safest remedy for egg binding in chickens. Put the hen in a cage with a wire floor. Place a large, flat pan of steaming water beneath the cage. Keep the water warm under her, but don’t keep it so hot that the steam burns her. Provide some overhead heat from a heat lamp, and enclose the whole cage with a blanket or plastic to keep the moist heat in. Make sure it doesn’t get too hot, however. A thermometer can be used to keep the heat between 90 and 102 degrees Fahrenheit. Water should be available at all times for the hen to drink.The hen should pass the egg in a couple hours with this treatment. If you see an egg, she should have perked up and will be ready to be removed from the cage. If no egg has passed but she seems more active and will eat, you probably misdiagnosed her, " 
http://www.dummies.com/how-to/content/how-to-treat-egg-binding-in-chickens.html ).

You can also put your hen in a sink or tub and fill it with a few inches of warm water (as hot as you would want it while taking a shower) for 20-30 minutes at a time. My hen, Edith, liked it a lot. It was probably more relaxing than being in the wire cage. But you also have to be with her the whole time, making sure to keep the water warm. If the egg doesn't pass through then try again later. You will also need to dry her completely before putting her back outside. I used my blow dryer and she loved it! (Be sure not to get it too close so it doesn't burn her.)


Sick Chicken

Chickens are durable animals, but always susceptible to sickness/disease. Signs of sickness include pale comb and wattles, discharge from eyes/nostrils/beak, diarrhea, loss of feathers, scabs, bleeding, swollen body parts (the bottom especially), lowered body temperature, infestation of mites/lice, and weight loss. Also look for irregular behavior such as unusual decrease or stop in egg production, not eating, listlessness, drooped wings and head, unable to stand, and closed eyes. You will know if your chicken seems "off", especially if you know her personality.
If you notice one of your chickens is sick, you can help it out by:
-taking it inside, to a warm and draft free room
-get a large box (enough for her to walk around in a little) and fill it up a couple inches with shavings
-attach a heating lamp on top of the box so the chicken can be warm
-give her plenty of water, and yummy food (like veggie broth, yogurt, oatmeal, cheese, etc), or the chicken pellets; or crumble which I added water to to make it mushy
Keep her in there until you see she has perked up and is moving around in the box, trying to get out.

This website has helped in figuring out what's wrong with my chicken:
Or get "The Chicken Health Handbook", which if very informational (and good if you don't always have internet access)


Chicken Body Lice

Since chickens are outdoor animals, they are susceptible to lice and mites. A common species is called Chicken Body Lice. They are small, but easily visible, and light yellow/tan. The lice will lay (or glue) their eggs at the base of the chicken's feathers usually around their bottom. 
 "It feeds on skin fragments, feathers and debris. Its gnawing activities cause the host's skin to be irritated, red, and scabby. As a result, infested birds lose weight and layers decrease egg production. Extremely heavy infestations can kill poultry," (http://ipm.ncsu.edu/AG369/notes/chicken_body_louse.html). 

One way prevent this, is to spread Diatomaceous Earth all around the floors of the coop and run, the nesting boxes and dust bathing area before you get chickens. And continue while you have the chickens.
DE is made of tiny fossilized water plants. It is crushed into a powder so it's soft to hands and chickens, but to insects a lethal dust with microscopic razor sharp edges.
 To put it on the chicken, hold her under your arm (like a football), her head facing your back. Take small handfuls of DE and gently rub it into the feathers around the infested area.

If your chickens are infested with lice, then you can fill up a bucket or sink with warm water and some flee shampoo (kitten/puppy dose, or adult diluted), hold the chicken in the water (keep it's neck and head above water), gently rub in shampoo in infested areas. Then rinse a few times thoroughly, and blow dry or wait for the feathers to dry. And I used  a very diluted flea and tick pyrethin dip, which has worked so far, but ask someone (like an experienced chicken keeper, or someone at your local feed store) about using something like this first.
In my case, DE didn't help get rid of the my chickens lice, I think its a better prevention than treatment. But I still put it everywhere in the coop and run. Always wear a mask to cover your nose and mouth when applying DE on the chicken or spreading around the ground, it is hurtful to inhale. I get my DE at Island Seed and Feed, make sure it's food grade-they'll know. I use an old towel to put on top of me to collect all the extra DE and put it in their dust bathing area or back in the bag
Chicken Body Lice can only live on a feathered host, so you don't need to worry about getting it when handling a chicken.


The Hen -All Grown Up

It is always a good idea to learn some of the anatomy terms for your chickens. I have used these terms to describe my chickens if they are sick or hurt, or to distinguish from different breeds, etc.
A wonderful book for this is called The Field Guide to Chickens, by Pam Percy. She explains all the different combs, colors, patterns, breeds (and more) of chickens.
Here are some common terms to know of the chicken anatomy starting from head to feet:

-Comb: Located on top of the head. It is red and "meaty" looking. There are many different varieties of combs in shape and color. The comb plays a role in attracting a mate, it helps cool the body temperature in hot weather, and is an indicator of overall health.
-Wattles: Located under the beak. Red and meaty looking. Has same qualities as the comb. Visit this site for further information: http://communitychickens.blogspot.com/2011/01/chickens-comb-more-than-fashion.html
-Earlobes: Located behind the eyes. Generally, earlobe color indicates egg color. White earlobes for white eggs, and red earlobes for brown eggs.
-Primary feathers: These are the feathers on the very end of the wing. They are also called flight feathers. If you cut these, it will usually prevent a chicken from "flying".
-Hackle feathers: The hackles are the long pointy feathers around the neck.
-Saddle feathers: The longer feathers falling on the sides of the chicken just before the tail feathers.
-Crop: Is the part of their chest that bulges out slightly to the right. This is where they store their food before it is digested.
-Vent: The hen and rooster's reproductive organs are located inside the vent. (The egg of the hen comes out of this hole, but through a different tube than the poop would travel through, so the egg is sanitary). It should look pinkish/yellow and clean.
-Hock: The ankle, located in the middle of their leg that bends, this can get sprained or broken. 
-Shank: The shin, in human terms. The chicken leg has scales, and come in many different colors.
-Spur: Most prominently on roosters. Looks like a giant claw on the inside of the leg. Used as a defense mechanism. The hen usually just has a little knob for a spur.
-Toes: Chickens have between 4-5 toes.

"Healthy chickens…
Sugar, 5 months old
  • When fully grown the chicken should sport a nice firm comb
  • The comb will be bright red when the chicken is in lay.
  • The eyes should be beady and bright.
  • A healthy chicken will be perky, lean and active.
  • Scales on the legs and feet should be smooth and not lifting.
  • The colour of the legs is a good indicator of whether the chicken is laying. If they are very yellow then she is probably not laying eggs yet. If they are pale almost white then she probably is.
  • When you pick your chicken up her body should be plump and firm, but with no flabbyness.
  • You can examine your chickens eyes and nose to check there are no discharges.
  • The vent (the chickens all-purpose exit point) should be moist and white, with no lumps, crustiness, bleeding etc." -http://www.keepchickens.info/health/


Chicken poop is one of the best sources of nutrients for your garden or yard. It also saves you money from buying fertilizer at the store, and is much more environmentally friendly since it is organic fertilizer.
I collect the poop/grass/leaves/etc from the run every month or so and the poop/shavings every couple of weeks. I shovel it all into a wheelbarrow and poor it into our compost.
Making a compost is very simple. And very beneficial to have along with chickens and a garden (even if you don't have a garden you can still use compost and chicken poop for your plants and trees).
Here is a link to learn how to build a compost: http://www.extension.umn.edu/distribution/horticulture/dg5553.html
and learn all about starting a compost:

Chicken Proofing Your Yard

If you have decided to let your chickens be able to roam around your yard then be sure to remember this: chickens are notorious for messing and demolishing the yard from all their scratching around. I definitely recommend putting fencing around your beloved flowers/plants or gardens. If you have a patio in your backyard, I definitely recommend fencing that off too. They will poop all over it!
the extra foot of chicken wire added
I use 3 foot high chicken wire (but I definitely recommend it be at least 4ft high for standard breeds) and staple it to sturdy posts spread a few feet apart. Make sure the wire is touching the ground so the chickens can't escape. They will try to dig under the fence. If you are in an area where bobcats, coyotes, foxes, raccoons, or other critters are known to come out in the day and have access to your yard, then you should definitely use 6 foot high fencing or more and possibly with an electrical wire around the perimeter to deter them. And always keep an eye on the chickens.
Naughty chicken!
One of my hens (Henrietta:), would constantly fly up onto the fence (and coop!) between our yard and the neighbor's driveway-not good! To discourage her from doing this, I added another foot high of chicken wire on the fence. This worked for me. I think it's because the added wire confused her because she couldn't see a surface for her to jump up on. I haven't had any problems since.

(click on pics to enlarge)

Introducing Chicks to the Coop and Run

When the chicks are 8 weeks of age, they are now old enough to live outside in the coop and run. It is a very simple transition when introducing the chicks to the coop. There are two ways to do so:
1. We had already built the coop and run when the chicks were only a couple weeks old. So during the eighth week, I let the chicks out for some "play days" for a couple of hours during the afternoon. This will let them adjust to the great out doors smoothly; and its really fun to watch them play around in it too!
2. The other and "easier" way is to just let them out when the time comes and hope for the best. This works fine also, it just depends on how much time you want to spend with them. Be sure to transition them in the afternoon. And check on them often.

You may need to put the chicks in the coop when its dark, since they won't really know where to go for the first night. Have plenty of shavings on the coop floor and in the nesting boxes so they can stay warm-since they may or may not perch at first.
They now use adult feeders, but make sure they are low enough for them to eat out of. You will still need to feed the chicks the starter crumble until 4-5 months. Then you can mix half and half crumble and pellets, until you're out of the crumble, then use only pellets.
Many people have also put the light you used in the chick box to help the chicks stay warmer the first few nights. I didn't do this and they were fine, but they also were all feathered out-no bald spots or fuzz. And the nights in Santa Barbara are very mild.

My Coop/Run Pictures

My run (ideal for 2-3 chickens) and coop (big enough for 10 chickens)

orchard area for them to roam

The run
fenced in chicken area, leads to the orchard

(You can click on the pics to view larger)
Nesting boxes
the coop

You can also see more good coop ideas on these links:



The Run

Along with a coop for the chickens, they also need a spacious area outside for them to roam. There are three options for an outdoor area for the chickens. You can either let them be free roaming in the backyard; you can build an enclosed run attached to the coop; or like me, have an enclosed run attached to the coop and a more spacious fenced off area around the coop/run. A enclosed wire run with a roof is much safer than letting your chickens roam freely, but the more room the chickens have to roam and scratch around, the happier and healthier they will be. So it's up to you!

If you do decide to have a run, then consider this:
-Size. If the run is not big enough for the chickens, they will start hen pecking each other because they are bored. Hen pecking is when chickens will peck each other pulling the feathers out and causing the skin to bleed, this can then result in cannibalism. To prevent this, make the run as big as you can possibly afford. The more space they have, then there is less chance of them having problems like hen pecking. I think a good rule of thumb is to make the run at least 4 times bigger than the coop. I also made the run tall enough for people to walk in, to make it easier to clean.
-Perches. I have two perches in the run so the chickens can have a break if they're getting picked on.
-Treats. If your chickens don't have access to grass or foliage, then I recommend giving them plenty of fresh veggies, fruits, seeds, etc, so they can get the nutrients they need to be healthy and have healthy eggs.
-Ground. The chickens will need dirt in the run so they can take dust baths. I give them mowed lawn clippings (fertilizer/pesticide free), fallen leaves from our sycamore trees, and wood mulch-which are all great ground coverings. I also use the run as a compost. I put in all our leftover garden greens, weeds, fruits, veggies, etc, which will make the dirt rich with nutrients to use for your plants or garden. Never use hay/straw (it attracts mites/lice and gets moldy), gravel, or sand as the main ground cover. 
-Wire. Welded wire or regular chicken wire are good coverings for the run. I have welded wire since we've got predators like bobcats, coyotes, and raccoons. You can either lay chicken wire across the run around one foot deep and attach to the sides of the run (then cover with dirt); or insert wire, wood, concrete, or cinder block a foot deep vertically on the sides of the run. So predators can't dig under.
-Roof. Many people will put a roof on the top of the run instead wire, which is great. I think this is a good idea if you live in an area that snows/rains regularly. Since I only have wire, I put plastic over the top of the run when it's raining.

The fencing I use surrounding the run/coop is regular chicken wire 3ft high (but I think it's best to use at least 4-5 feet high fencing). I have to clip their wings so they don't fly over. Though letting the chickens roam freely is more risky safety wise, it makes them a lot happier to have more space to move about and be chickens. And it also keeps them very occupied throughout the day so I don't have to worry about them being bored, which will lead to problems. Make sure you don't have any poisonous plants in the chicken area. And make sure the chickens won't be able to easily escape under the fencing.

The Coop

My coop is very simple. I used recycled wood for the walls, have only a dirt floor, and got tree branches from the beach for the perches. But I had to buy corrugated plastic (or metal) for the roof, pine shavings, and feeders. But of course each coop, if custom built, will have to be somewhat different from the other. But this can be a general guide if your planning to build a coop:

The purpose of the coop is for protection from predators and weather, laying eggs, and a place to sleep at night. Here is what to consider:
-Predator proof. My coop is made of wood with a plastic (but I like metal better) corrugated roof. Mine just has a dirt floor, with wood boards placed about a foot deep underground so predators won't be able to dig. Or you can place chicken wire on the floor and cover with dirt or pine shavings. Or you can build an elevated wood floor, which would probably be safest, but for me, it's easier to clean a dirt floor than a wood floor.
-Ventilation. I have small wire windows (with shutters) around the coop sides for air to flow through. And I open the human door to the coop during the day when I let them roam around in our fenced in orchard. I use pine shavings to cover the poop from the night before, to decrease smell and flies.
-Doors.  The hens have a little doggy door so they can go in and out of the coop/run as they please. And I have a door people can walk through for both coop and run. Both doors have a secure latch that predators can't open.
-Perches. I have one perch 2 feet above the ground and another around 4 feet above the ground perpendicular to it. I would say 10 inches of length for each chicken on the perch. So you may need multiple perches to have enough room for the chickens. I use round natural branches for the perches that are around 2-3 inches in diameter. Or you can use cut wood. Have it be between 2-3 inches in diameter also, and a good inch or two deep, and sand it to prevent splinters.
-Nesting boxes. I have one nesting box for every 3 hens. My boxes are 14"L x 14"W x 14"H. I basically cut out part of the wall of the coop and attached one row of 3 nesting boxes (already made). The chickens have access to them, without the boxes taking up room in the coop. The roof for the boxes flips up so you can easily collect the eggs from the outside, and latches when closed to be predator proof. You can stack rows of nesting boxes on top of each other, making the bottom row around 1 foot above the ground, and the rows above need a perch attached so they can easily fly up and get in the box. I use plenty of pine shavings in the boxes, and replace shavings every month or so. (Do not use hay, it attracts mites and lice, I speak from experience). 
-Feeders. You will need one pair of feeders for every 10-12 chickens. I have attached mine to a chain hooked on the ceiling. The feeders are raised off the ground up to the chicken's chest. I thoroughly clean and scrub the water feeder every time I need to refill it. (You can find chicken feeders at Island Seed and Feed, or La Cumbre Feed).
-Size. My coop is 6 feet x 5 feet. This will hold up to 10 chickens. You can add a foot in length and width for every 4 more chickens added. And add another nesting box too.

Ordering kit coops online can be risky, so I definitely recommend custom making your own coop, which isn't necessarily more expensive. It actually can save you money because you can make a sturdy, thrifty, and simple coop that will work perfect for you and your chickens. If you need help you can contact me and I would love to help you create your own coop!


Chicken Food Do's and Don'ts

Do give chickens:
-leafy veggies (lettuces, spinach, tomato leaves, cabbage, sour grass, mustard flower, etc.)
-fruits (berries, apples, pears, citrus fruits, cucumber, melons, etc.)
-breads (plain), plain pancakes/waffles, rice, oatmeal, pasta
-seeds/crushed nuts (unsalted, unflavored)
-bugs, worms, snails, slugs, etc.
-weeds, mowed yard grass (don't give them anything that has been sprayed with pesticides or chemical fertilizer)
-scrambled eggs-a great source of protein
-crushed dried egg shells- great source of calcium
-dairy (cheese, milk, yogurt)

Don't give chickens:
-rotting, moldy food
-breads with jam, butter, honey, etc.
-salted, dressed, chocolate, frosted or sweetened foods
-cakes, dyed foods, or any desserts

-wild mushrooms, moss, unknown wild berries
-leaves/flowers from unknown plants

Sexing Chicks

Make sure that you buy sexed chicks, and ask specifically for females. Believe it or not, there are professional chick sexers, that have a very keen eye in determining the sex of the chick right after its birth. Many people will buy in bulk, and in some cases over half of the chicks turn out to be males. And in most neighborhoods, roosters are not allowed. So if you want, here are some ways to determine if your chick is a male or female:

pinker comb
hackle (pointy neck) feathers
spur development
and of course, crowing (which starts around 3 months of age)

yellower comb
rounded feathers

If you are suspicious of one of your chicks being a male, then either get another opinion, or wait until you can actually see and hear the difference. This site will help guide you:

Raising Chicks

Raising chicks is so much fun! But the first thing you need to do is to figure out how many chickens you want. I usually recommend one chicken per family member to start out. But many others get more because they are big egg eaters or want to sell the eggs too. You need at least two chickens, since they are flock animals and need a buddy. How many you get also depends on how much space you have (which you can learn about in the "Coop and Run" posting).
I have ordered my chicks from Island Seed and Feed in the past. People can also buy chicks from local backyard breeders, just make sure they are legitimate responsible breeders.
 For the first 8 weeks, the chicks will need:
-A box. It is important to have adequate spacing and protection for the chicks while inside. For my five chicks, I used a big cardboard box that was around 4ft Lx2ft W (which could probably hold up to 12 chicks) that I divided to make a smaller space when the chicks were very small. Then over time I increased their space as they got bigger. This was so they wouldn't stray too far from the light and get cold. It is also a good idea to have some type of covering on the box so other pets can't get in and the chicks can't get out (chicken wire is good). Keep them in a room with warmth and no drafts.
-Light. You will need to get a heating lamp (like for reptiles, or any lamp that produces heat) and put it over the chicks' box so they can stay warm but without coming into contact with it. Ways to tell if there is too much heat is if the chicks are far away from the lamp and spread out when they are sleeping and ways to tell if there is not enough heat is if the chicks are huddled together directly under the lamp constantly.
-Food. The chicks will need Chick Starter Crumble (I use organic) for the first 5 months, buy in bulk. You also need a food and water feeder made especially for chicks. I would say one pair of feeders for every 10-15 chicks. Refill the water everyday with tap water. As the chicks grow bigger, you will need to raise the feeders from the ground.
-Shavings. Pine shavings are best to use as ground cover. You will need to clean out the poop and shavings every week, or so, to keep the air clean for the chicks. Pile up 2+ inches of shavings in the whole box.

Other things to know:
-Sickness. A common problem chicks get is "pasty butt". This is when poop dries on their vent (butt), making them unable to excrete the rest of the poop. Check them everyday for this. To fix this, get a warm wet cloth and gently rub or pick off the poop. Also, some chicks may get bullied, which prevents them from eating, so hold each chick everyday to make sure they are the same weight. If one is lighter, then separate it from the others and give it its own stash of food, or add another feeder. For more serious problems you can go to this site:
Which you may want to read before getting your chicks to be able to spot problems before hand.
-Handling. If you want tame chickens, talk to and hold them often throughout the day to get them used to people. Hold one at a time cupping them with both hands. Don't squeeze them, they are very fragile. Always be calm and quiet. And wash your hands before and after handling them to prevent spread of disease.

What Breed?

Most feed stores will sell common breeds like the: Rhode Island, Ameraucana, Australorp, Leghorn, Brahma, Orpington, Rock, Sex Link (hybrids), Star, and Easter Eggers. But as these breeds become more popular, many other breeds become more rare and endangered. So, if given the opportunity, I definitely would encourage anyone to buy chickens from a responsible breeder who sells less common breeds. They can be more expensive, but can add a great variety of colors, patterns, size, combs, personalities, eggs, and more to your flock. The brown and white chickens aren't the only ones. There are literally hundreds of different kinds to choose from!
Something to think about before you buy chickens is your situation. Whether it financial, family, neighbors, location, etc. 
If you are financially tight, then the cheapest way to get chicks is to go to a local feed store. Or you can have a batch shipped out to you. But the only problem with this is that you usually have to buy 25 or more chicks (that is A LOT of  chickens!) and some might be roosters, and they are sometimes not quality bred (my Brahma doesn't have leg feathers, my Ameracauna was sick, and my friend's chicken had a crooked beak, or there could be hybrids). So again, I prefer buying from legit local breeders, and if you don't want to deal with the whole chick process, you can buy your hens as adults, usually from $10-30 each (which I don't think is any more expensive considering all the money spent on raising chicks). 
Another cheap way to get some chickens is to rescue ex-battery hens. Although they will be injured and sick, with some TLC, they can recover and will obviously lay very well (they won't be older than 1 1/2 years old). They also generally have good personalities (probably because they are so happy! to be able to actually live as a chicken, have room, be outside). 
Also decide how many you want. I have eight for a family of five. If you're big egg eaters, I would think 2 hens per person is good. But I started out with five chicks, and over the years some have died, and I've bought more. You will need to get at least two, and when adding more, you need to buy two at a time. And you will probably want to buy more once you discover how much fun it is to keep chickens! As a beginner, I would recommend 4-5, so it's not too overwhelming or expensive. 
Consider your neighbors. Make sure your neighbors are okay with daily clucking (the girls are very proud when they lay their eggs :). It's the worst when you've got a complaining neighbor and have to get rid of your chickens when you've become so attached to them. 
Also look at your location. You may have to get specific breeds depending on where you live weather wise. If it's cold and snowy often, look for breeds that are cold hardy. And the same with hot weather. And decide how much space you have for the chickens. Chickens need room to roam and occupy themselves. Many people will try to sell coops/runs that say it can hold twelve chickens, but I think humanely should only hold four chickens. (I think making your own coop and run is better). The more freedom chickens have to roam, then the happier and healthier they will be.

Good websites to go to find what breeds you want are:

Egg Nutrition Facts

"Eggs from hens raised where they can eat seeds, grass [or veggies] and bugs are far more nutritious than eggs from confined hens in factory farms... research shows that eggs from hens raised on pasture have:

1/3 less cholesterol
1/4 less saturated fat
2/3 more vitamin A
2 times more omega-3 fatty acids
3 times more vitamin E
7 times more beta carotene
4 to 6 times more vitamin D"

Details of the research are available at www.MotherEarthNews.com/Eggs

I now absolutely refuse to eat store bought eggs, because my hens' eggs are so much more healthy and flavorful. The yokes are orange! -Compared to the pale yellow yokes from factory eggs. You can really see and taste the difference!

Although now, since it is more widely thought that orange yokes are healthier. Factories/commercial farms are smartly taking advantage of this and adding omega 3 fatty acids (what makes the yoke orange) so people think it's healthy. Not true. If you see the chicken that egg came from, you will never want to buy commercial eggs (or meat) again. Growing your own eggs is much more humane and healthy because your chickens are actually getting all the nutrients required to really make her healthy and the egg healthier, not just orange. If you can't have your own chickens, buy local. From neighbors, farmers markets, etc.


Chicken Pro's and Con's

Keeping chickens is a wonderful experience, even though there are some not so wonderful things about them. But in my experience, it's totally worth it! There are much more rewarding positives than negatives about keeping backyard chickens:

-Loud. Whenever my girls lay an egg they are very proud and have to tell the whole world about their accomplishment. So make sure your neighbors are okay with the sounds of farm life.
-Predators. Chickens have many predators: foxes, dogs, coyotes, raccoons, opossums, hawks, sometimes cats, skunks, bobcats, etc. Make sure your chickens are safe from these critters.
-Roaming. Chickens are natural foragers and will often escape or get lost roaming. Solution: a spacious enclosed run, or a fencing system that keeps them where you want them to be.
-Flies are attracted to poop and pooping is one of the things chickens do best! Solution: fly traps, keeping the chicken area dry, frequently cleaning the run/coop.
-Money. While buying a chick costs about $4-7, taking care of chickens can cost hundreds or even thousands. A good idea, if money is an issue, is to go thrifty and buy used equipment for your hens. Growing your own veggies for the chickens is another great way to save $.
-Naughty. If you decide to let your hens roam freely in the yard, be sure to fence your lovely flowers or gardens so they don't demolish them. They also can fly/jump higher than you would think, so you may want to clip their wings. Or, a solution, you can just keep them in a spacious enclosed run. 

-Eggs. Backyard chicken eggs are much more nutritious than commercial farm eggs, if your hens have access to veggies/fruit and seeds. You can taste the difference!
-Fun! It is so relaxing and entertaining to watch "the girls". They have a lot of personality, and can make wonderful pets for kids.
-Experience. Having chickens is such a great way to start your own urban backyard farm. It is not only a great learning experience, but a great way of therapy. 
-Eco-friendly. Having your own chickens and eggs saves lots of energy, since you aren't encouraging commercial farming, which is inhumane and wasteful. 
-Fertilizer. Chicken poop is one of the best fertilizers for your plants, garden and compost. Go organic!
-Pest control. Chickens are omnivores, so they love eating bugs, worms, spiders, snails, etc. (Mine have even eaten mice!)
-Spreading the news! Since I have gotten chickens, many people have become very interested in raising their own backyard chickens.

What to know before getting chickens-

Many people assume that chickens are simple creatures, so it must be simple to keep some right?
Well in a sense, yes, it is easy caring for them, if your up for the commitment! (And you will see that chickens are in fact quite smart). You should know that if a chicken doesn't die from predators or sickness, they can live up to 10-15 years. Some might lay up to that long, while most decrease laying around 5 years, and will only lay a couple a week, instead of almost every day when they are young. Also, keeping backyard chickens won't save you any money. After building the coop and run and getting all the equipment for raising chicks, you will then have to buy feed for the hens once every month or so (depending on how many you have), shavings for the nesting boxes, seeds, etc. But don't let this dissuade you! You can save a lot of money by collecting used (and clean) wood and wire for the coop and run, or find a shed or used coop off of Craigslist. Chickens also need space, so make sure you have enough in your yard. Chickens also take time. You will need to clean out their coop often and watch them for irregular behavior or sickness.
I definitely recommend buying these books before getting chickens, which have helped me so much in caring for chickens:
"Keeping Chickens", by Jeremy Hobson and Celia Lewis
"The Field Guide to Chickens", by Pam Percy

If you have any questions, please email me (gracie.rid@gmail.com), and I would love to help you start your own flock of backyard chickens!